All class emails are sent to the email address per the NYU Brightspace roster. The Almaris system (if used for your class) also uses the same email. NYU Brightspace lists @nyu.edu email for some of you and @stern.nyu.edu email for others. I don’t control these matters, nor can I change them. Please contact NYU IT (212-998-3333) or NYU Stern IT (212-998-0180) to learn how to read/forward/check spam for @nyu.edu as well as @stern.nyu.edu accounts. Contact them for all ZOOM/email/NYU Brightspace/Admin/CapitalIQ issues. If NYU/Stern support cannot help you, please escalate these matters to Student Affairs/Dean's office without involving me. I will not respond to support requests. Almaris support cannot change emails. You can do so by clicking on the link "Change email" on their main login page.
This course [ACCT-GB.6326.C1] is offered only once in the summer to BS/MS in Accounting students.
This course covers the following topics that are crucial for a graduate degree in accounting. Learning these topics will be intense, but the knowledge gained will be highly useful in your career.
- Accounting for income taxes [ASC 740]
- Accounting for business combinations [ASC 805]
- Consolidations [ASC 810]
- Foreign operations [ASC 830]
- Derivatives [ASC 815]
Help and Office
- I use my materials. Therefore, there is no required textbook, and you need not purchase anything. I will provide the materials once the course begins. I cannot provide them beforehand.
- All classes will be on Zoom and will be recorded.
- All assignments are mandatory. I will email you once the assignments are ready. You will then get an email from Almaris with your user id and password. Login to view the online assignments at http://www.almaris.com/assess/. The email is sent to the email official Stern email. The Almaris password is different from the Stern password. You can retrieve the password at any time by entering your official email (no aliases) and leaving the password blank.
- You can learn concepts from others, but you must work on the actual
assignment alone. You may be called upon in class to explain your answer to the assignments.
- I might update the deadlines as the course progresses. The deadlines shown at Almaris are the correct deadlines. NO EXTENSIONS will be granted for any reason except medical or family emergencies. If you have religious or personal conflicts, submit the assignments early. The related materials are covered well in advance of the assignments. Please do not email me to request extensions unless you have a medical or family emergency. Some assignments are short; others are long. Please manage your time.
- Assignments are marked “late” if you do not meet or exceed the passing score described below before the deadline. There is no additional penalty for lateness other than the low score.
- I set the passing score at 100% if you should ace the assignment. However, you do not "fail" the assignment if you do not ace it. Whatever you get on your last attempt is your final score.
- Almaris is offering these tests to Stern at no charge since I am a co-founder of Almaris.
- Almaris staff is not authorized to extend deadlines under any circumstances. Only my TAs can do that. Almaris staff will reply to your emails only if they pertain to technical issues with the Almaris system. Please contact Stern IT for technical issues with your network.
Exams and Grading
- If you have a qualified disability and require academic accommodation during this course, please contact me directly. I will arrange a separate room/time for you.
- Grades will be based upon the following factors:
- Attendance and participation will not be graded but is strongly encouraged. I understand that some of you will not attend classes because you have started your job or are in a different time zone. Do not worry. You will not be penalized in any way.
- 25%: Almaris assignments described above.
- You need not get a full score on the Almaris assignments; any score above 80% is considered a passing score and will be rounded up to 100%.
- 75%: Final exam
- Your exam will consist of one or more spreadsheets. Your score on each spreadsheet will be max(attempt1, attempt2 - 7, attempt3 - 14, attempt4 - 21, attempt5 - 28).
- If you want us to grade your incomplete or incorrect spreadsheet manually, submit it within FIVE MINUTES of the end of the exam. Do not email it; look for File Exchange in the left-hand menu bar on NYU Brightspace. If you submit the spreadsheet for manual grading, you would be considered to have used up your five attempts. Therefore, your maximum score on that spreadsheet can only be 72/100 due to the penalty for multiple attempts.
Important computer tips for the final
- DO NOT WORK ON A SPREADSHEET WITHIN A BROWSER. Save the spreadsheet to your desktop, work on it, and save it periodically. If you navigate away from the spreadsheet in a browser, ALL YOUR WORK WILL BE LOST.
- Restart your computer before the exam to minimize problems.
- Bring an external mouse with a scroll wheel to speed up test-taking. Do not waste time using the trackpad or the internal mouse.
- Maximize screen space by hiding the Excel ribbon and browser menus. The more of the screen you see, the faster and more accurate you are.
- Bring a computer with as big a screen as possible.
- Organize your computer files and designate a directory where you will be saving your exam files.
- Do not get an unfamiliar computer.
- There is no midterm. There will be no in-class graded quizzes.
- A detailed document is provided in the course materials. It lists the sequence of topics, related pages from the materials, related spreadsheets, and related assignments. The outline below is a summary.
1. Deferred taxes: An introduction
We will skip this part if you are already comfortable with it based on the coverage in prior classes.
Permanent versus temporary differences
- Book income versus taxable income
- Book basis versus tax basis
- Tax paid, tax bill, current tax expense, deferred tax expense, total tax expense
- Taxes payable, uncertain tax benefit liabilities, deferred tax liabilities
- Tax refunds receivable
2. Deferred taxes: Four key examples
Taxable and deductible temporary differences
- When book revenues precede taxable revenues: Book basis versus tax basis of receivables
- When book revenues follow taxable revenues: Book basis versus tax basis of deferred revenues
- When book expenses precede tax deductions: Book basis versus tax basis of accrued expenses
- When book expenses follow tax deductions: Book basis versus tax basis of deferred expenses
- When future enacted tax rates are different
3. Deferred taxes: Intermediate issues
Accumulated other comprehensive income
- Other comprehensive income arising from available-for-sale securities
- Introduction to intra-period tax allocations
Tax credit carryforwards and tax loss carrybacks and carryforwards
- R&D credit carryforwards
- AMT credit carryforwards
- NOL carryback
- NOL carryforwards
- More-likely-than-not criterion
- Positive evidence
- Negative evidence
- Trading securities
- Available-for-sale securities
When there is no consolidation
- Cost-method investments
- Equity-method investments
Introduction to consolidation
- Voting interest entities versus variable interest entities
- A peek at variable interest entities
5. Acquisitions: An example to illustrate the overall process
On the acquisition date
- Identify the acquirer
- Determine the acquisition date
- Compute consideration paid
- Measure the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed: Step-ups
- Determine if push-down or top-side accounting applies
- Compute Deferred taxes
- Derive goodwill
After acquisition date
- Increased depreciation and amortization
- Unwinding of deferred tax assets and liabilities
6. Acquisitions: Scope and Consideration paid
Scope of ASC 805
- Acquiring assets versus acquiring a business
- Definition of a business
- Joint ventures
- Transactions between entities under common control
- Veto rights
- Components of purchase consideration
- Cash paid
- Debt assumed
- Equity issued
- Contingent consideration: Equity-classified and liability-classified earnouts
- Replacement stock awards issued to employees
- Off-market contracts
- Items that are excluded from purchase consideration
- Preexisting relationships
- Share-based payments allocated to post-acquisition services
- Transaction costs
- Premium paid
- Understanding premium over book value versus premium over market value
- Understanding control premium
7. Acquisitions: Acquired assets and liabilities
- Trading, available-for-sale, and held-to-maturity securities: Difficulty of valuing Level III securities
- Receivables and allowances: Misleading days sales and allowance ratios after an acquisition
- Raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods inventories: Misleading gross margin and days of inventory ratios after an acquisition
- PP&E: Distorted accumulated depreciation to gross PP&E ratios after an acquisition; distorted PP&E turnover after an acquisition
- Favorable leases and contracts
- Intangible assets
- Brands and trademarks
- Customer relationships
- Deferred tax assets are covered in the next section
Acquired pre-tax liabilities
- Accounts payable and accrued expenses: Misleading days payable after an acquisition
- Asset retirement obligations
- Deferred revenues: Understated future revenues, misleading days of deferred revenues
- Unfavorable leases and contracts
Deferred tax liabilities and assets
- Book basis versus tax basis in acquisitions and resulting deferred tax assets and liabilities
8. Acquisitions: Post-acquisition date accounting
- Finite life assets
- Indefinite life assets other than goodwill
- Finite life assets
- Indefinite life assets other than goodwill
9. Acquisitions: Non-controlling interest
When the parent retains control
- Profits and losses
- Other comprehensive income
- Increases or decreases in ownership stake while still maintaining control
When the parent acquires or relinquishes control
- Acquire control: Marking the existing investments to fair value and computing the fair value of remaining non-controlling interest
- Relinquish control: De-consolidation and marking the remaining investment to fair value
10. Foreign Operations
Overview of the process
- Identify the reporting entity and its reporting currency
- Identify distinct and separable operations within the reporting entity
- Determine the functional currency of each operation
- Remeasure amounts not in functional currency to functional currency
- Translate functional currency amounts to reporting currency
- Monetary assets
- Non-monetary assets
- How remeasurements affect financial ratios
- Cumulative translation adjustment
- How translations affect indirect cash flow adjustments
11. Intercompany transactions
Purchase and sale of inventory and long-lived assets
- Sale of inventory
- Sale of PP&E and intangibles
- Finite duration
- Indefinite duration
12. Introduction to derivatives
- What are derivatives? Why are they useful?
- Forward versus futures contracts
Commonly used derivatives
- Commodity derivatives
- Foreign currency derivatives
- Interest rate derivatives
13. Hedge accounting
The five possibilities
- Forward sale agreements
- Financial instruments at fair value but not accounted for as hedges
- Fair value hedge
- Cash flow hedge
- Hedge of net investment in a foreign operation